Has a widespread distribution, often occurs in the form of epidemic outbreaks. The disease can be caused by all types of fungi of the genus Trichophyton and Microsporum.
The clinical picture of fungal infections of the scalp is determined by the ecology of the pathogen, the way the elements of the fungus in hair and severity of the inflammatory reaction developing in the skin in response to the introduction of the fungus.
Superficial disease of the scalp – usually occurs in children aged 6 to 10 years, at least – from 1 to 5 and 11 to 15 years. Many patients in puberty, the infection tends to resolve. If not, then there is so-called chronic disease of the scalp, observed mainly in adult women.
The source of infection in superficial diseases of the scalp are the sick person and the things that it touches (hats, scarves, combs, brushes, scissors, bedding, etc.).
Clinical picture. On the scalp lesions are formed mild redness and slight peeling of the skin, which have an irregular rounded shape and fuzzy vague boundaries. The most characteristic symptom is the thinning of hair in lesions that are not caused by hair loss. Some hair break off at the level of 2-3 mm above the skin surface and have the form of hemp grayish color, while others are cut directly from out of the mouths of hair follicles, and have the appearance of "black spots". It was in broken so the hair is easier to identify the causative agent.
Erythemal-bubble form is characterized by the appearance of scattered, not very sharply defined pink plaques, slightly above the skin level and is dotted with tiny bubbles. Then there is a slight peeling, and the place of the small bubbles appear light brown. Hair break off at the level of the surface of the skin.
Impetigious form occurs in those cases when the surface disease of the scalp complicated by a secondary infection. The affected skin of the scalp thus covered with a crust very similar to that of impetigo.
Chronic "black-spotted" disease of the scalp is usually a continuation of the surface of the disease of children's age, who was in puberty. Disease of the scalp takes a chronic course almost exclusively in adult women, which, as a rule, are endogenous predisposing factors: dysfunction of the gonads, thyroid, autonomic disorders, hypovitaminosis, etc.
The disease occurs for the most part were obliterated, unbeknownst to the patient and others. Often the reason for the examination in adult women is the appearance in the family of sick children or grandchildren.
In some areas there are pockets of peeling with fuzzy boundaries and with fragments of hair. Sometimes the disease is manifested in the form of small dots with a dense crust at the mouth of the follicle. The most pathognomonic clinical symptom are broken at the skin level hair – the so-called "black spots".
Very rarely a superficial disease of the scalp becomes inflammatory in nature with the appearance of pustules, infiltrates.
Isolated chronic disease of the scalp is very rare. As a rule, the infectious process is common and along with the defeat of the scalp the lesions are observed on the smooth skin of the torso, palms, soles.
Disease of the scalp is celebrated almost exclusively in children, adult patients make up only 10-12 %. Infection of children occurs most often at the age from 1 to 13, rarely 15 years. Before the period of puberty in all patients spontaneous recovery occurs.
The disease is extremely contagious like children and animals; the groups of children (schools, nurseries, kindergartens) it can occur in the form of epidemic outbreaks.
The sources of infection and routes of transmission of infection with the disease caused by fungi, such as at a superficial disease of the scalp. The main sources of human infection, the zoo mushrooms are diseased cats and dogs.
Clinical manifestations of the disease develop after the incubation period, which lasts on average 4-6 weeks.
Around the hair spot is formed which gradually increases in size, capturing large areas of the skin of the scalp. Inflammatory changes in the lesions are mild. Sometimes early in the disease there is the appearance of bubbles with the contents of sulfur, sometimes covered with crusts.
At the height of its development the disease is characterized by the presence on the scalp right 1-2 large rounded or oval shape, sharply limited, which have no tendency to fusion centers. The skin around these lesions is slightly swollen and densely covered with grayish-white coating (like flour). All the hair in the lesions with a height of 4-6 mm above the skin level and look closely trimmed, there are areas of baldness. On the edge of the lesions of the hair is easy to break. The removed hairs at the base covered by a loose white cloth, which they resemble glass rod, first immersed in glue and then in fine sand.
Favus is a chronic fungal disease that starts in childhood and, not having a penchant for self-treatment, often continues in the adult. Favus is affected mostly on the side of the head, approximately 20 % of cases the process involved the nails and much less – smooth skin.
The main causative agent of Favus is Trichophyton schonleinii.
The source of infection in Favus is a sick person, rarely sick animals (mouse, cat).
Infection of Favus contribute to bad sanitary conditions, poor personal hygiene, poor nutrition, and certain customs, for example, an extended constant wearing of headgear for religious and other reasons.
The clinical picture of Favus consists of three main symptoms:
- education on the skin specific for Favus morphological elements of skin rash, so-called flaps-sculling, which represent a pure culture of the fungus;
- lose the hair that fall out;
- the formation of scar atrophy and persistent hair loss on the head.
Formed sculling have the appearance of dry formations of bright yellow color, from which the hair. In the long course of the disease without treatment sculling merge, forming a solid yellowish crust that resemble baked honeycomb (hence the name favus, "cell"). sculling is tightly attached to the skin, with great difficulty, removed individual loose parts, leaving behind inflamed bright pink, smooth, slightly damp erosion.
On the scalp, in addition to typical sculling form, found a kind of Favus. Rare suppurative form of the disease.
Deep disease of the scalp is usually caused by zoophilic trichophytons.
Infection of humans occurs most often through direct contact with sick animals, less frequently through a variety of subjects on which there are impressed with the mushroom hair and scales of affected animals. Less healthy people from infected patients with profound disease.
Infiltration can reach a size of 6-8 cm in diameter, has a bright red or blue color and sharply defined border. The number of foci can reach 5-6. Surface infiltration is dotted with a large number of deep pustules and hair. Externally unchanged, the hair is often presented crumbly crust due to deep purulent inflammation.
Sometimes the disease begins with the appearance of vesicles, pustules or skin peeling.
Patients complain of more or less sharp pain in the lesions. Due to absorption of decomposition products of fungi and lysed tissue comes intoxication of the patient: there is a feeling of malaise, weakness, headache, body temperature rises, sometimes up to 38-39 °C, develops regional lymphadenitis.
Deep disease occurs acutely prone to decision in 2-3 months. after the formation of the infiltrates. Healing occurs by scarring, large lesions leading to permanent baldness.