Psoriasis ─ skin disease that is chronic. Expressed in the appearance on the skin swollen spots (papules), which have a bright red color. As this disease is quite common, each is useful to know what appears psoriasis, its symptoms and methods of treatment. These important issues devoted to art.
Causes of psoriasis
Modern medicine considers psoriasis as a systemic failure in the body, and not as a separate disease. In addition to lesions on the skin, in patients diagnosed dysfunction of other organs often affects the endocrine and the nervous and immune systems.
One answer to the question why psoriasis occurs, science has no. There are several major theories, which adhere to the physicians. Let's consider them.
The immune theory
Recognized by many doctors theory is that the main reason for the development of psoriasis ─ dysfunction of the immune system. Papules are formed on the body the result is autoimmune aggression due to problems in the functioning of the immune system treats the skin cells as foreign, and therefore rejects them.
It has long been established ─ psoriasis often develops on the background of infectious diseases (sinusitis, tonsillitis). This is a powerful argument in favor of the fact that dysfunction of the immune system and provoke the disease. Exploring scales papules, researchers found that in their composition are antigenic complexes, not typical for healthy cells. Blood contains antigens to said complex, and provokes resentment.
Decreased immunity, no doubt, provokes the development of psoriasis. But it is important to take into account many other factors.
The predisposition to psoriasis is inherited. Not a disease, namely, a tendency. This confirms the statistical fact ─ 55-60% of people suffering from psoriasis have blood relatives with the same diagnosis. If it hurts one of the parents, the likelihood that the child will have this disease ─ 25% if both parents ─ the risk increases to 75%. It is proved that before the advent of the disease has a direct bearing on the plot of chromosomes that determines the level of inflammatory reaction of the skin. However, genetic predisposition doctors do not believe the main cause of the disease.
In some cultures there is resistance to psoriasis. This category includes Indians living in the Andes, the Eskimos. Their representatives have a set of genetic characteristics, so never suffer from this disease.
In accordance with the endocrine theory of the emergence of psoriasis provoke hormonal dysfunction. To such opinion the doctors came, after analyzing the characteristics of the disease. In their opinion, the excessive production of skin cells - the result of violations of the regulatory function, caused by dysfunction of the endocrine system.
In favor of the endocrine theory is the fact that during hormonal surges in women (ovulation, menstruation) and during pregnancy psoriasis manifests itself much more actively. However, scientists are not able to detect the hormone which directly affects the formation and course of psoriasis, therefore this theory is not considered fundamental.
One of the new theories ─ neurogenic. She claims that the psoriasis ─ a disease of the nerves, and it has a psychological cause. Provoke the development of neurosis (vasomotor). It causes narrowing of the blood vessels, reducing blood supply to the skin and the formation of papules.
Studies show that strong emotions, stress, nerves stimulate the formation and development of skin rashes. This is the main proof of neurogenic theory.
Some physicians are of the opinion that psoriasis develops due to infection. Indeed, in the period of infectious diseases papules appear more often, there are changes in the lymph nodes (peripheral). But this is likely the result of immune weakening of the body. In the history of the study of the disease was not identified the virus that causes the development of psoriasis.
The doctors never found cases of contact infection of this disease (even after a blood transfusion from a healthy person is infected). Therefore, the virus arouses a lot of doubt. In modern medicine psoriasis is defined as not a contagious disease.
In psoriasis, many patients with diagnosed reduced temperature and increased concentration of cholesterol, and signs of metabolic disorders. Still there is a violation of exchange of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates. This was revealed in the result of the medical examination of patients who suffer from psoriasis, and gave reason to assume that metabolic abnormalities lead to the development of the disease.
Factors that provoke the appearance of psoriasis
To understand how and why the psoriasis appears, it is necessary to outline the range of factors that with a high probability of being the cause of its development. These include:
- Negative emotions, stress, trauma, physical and emotional exhaustion are often the cause of the papules, of a relapse of the disease.
- Infectious diseases, chronic foci of infection, vaccination.
- Hormonal changes, especially in women during puberty, pregnancy, lactation, menopause.
- Physical trauma to the skin-burns, bites, frostbite, scratches.
- Some drugs-antibiotics, vitamin complexes, rich in vitamins A, b, C, Immunostimulants, herbs.
- Improper diet ─ excessive amounts in the diet of sweet, fatty, fried, alcohol.
- Climate change ─ especially adverse for people prone to psoriasis, regions with a humid climate, rapid changes in temperature.
- The presence of other dermatological diseases such as dermatitis, fungal diseases.
The reason for the development of psoriasis can be one of these factors. People who earlier suffered from the disease, should limit their influence to minimise the risk of recurrence.
Symptoms of psoriasis – how is
The risk of psoriasis is absolutely at any age. It is the children (even toddlers) and the elderly. The earlier the disease develops, the more running form goes.
The first signs of psoriasis:
- the formation of surface skin cracks, rash (pustular);
- delamination of the nail plate;
- blisters on the palms and soles;
- rapid cell death of the skin, their strong peeling;
- education on the skin papules ─ convex red spots that itch and are covered with white scales.
With the development of the disease the size and number of papules increases. Their size may exceed 10 cm In areas covered with rashes, the skin becomes very sensitive, the hair is maintained. Applying moisturizers does not help, peeling is not reduced.
Matter where it is psoriasis, there are several forms:
- Simple (vulgar) ─ is localized on legs, usually on the upper surface of the knees. Papules covered with white scales.
- Seborrheic ─ occurs in people who suffer from seborrhea. Characterized by yellowish papules, scales which are glued by sebum. They are not inflamed.
- Arthropathy ─ papules are formed in place of the joints, most often in the feet and hands. The disease restricts their mobility.
- Exudative ─ yellowish spots appear on the hands and feet, usually on the outer part of the elbows and knees.
- Pustular ─ accompanied by General malaise, fever. On the painful places often have abscesses.
- Psoriasis of soles and palms ─ is formed mainly in people engaged in physical work. Affects the palms and soles at the same time.
- Inverse ─ papules appear in great folds of the body (natural). This form of psoriasis is often accompanied by endocrine diseases.
- Teardrop ─ the formation of lesions of small size teardrop shape on the legs and torso. Can appear on the head.
- Nail psoriasis ─ localized on the nail plate, leading to its thickening, deformation. The infected nail is shaped like a bird's beak.
- Psoriatic erythroderma ─ severe form of the disease, which is characterized by a gradual progression of psoriasis, the merger plaques. In very advanced cases, they can cover the entire surface of the body. The process is accompanied by peeling, swelling, redness, itching, malaise.
There are three stages of psoriasis:
- Progressive ─ appear bright red rash of small size. For them characteristic of peripheral growth. It is important to begin treatment and to prevent skin injuries, or the disease will quickly progress.
- Fixed ─ a new rash to appear and the available stops increasing.
- Regression ─ papules are pale, reduced in size, the peeling stops.
For diagnosis of psoriasis relies on the visual inspection, laboratory investigations and microscopy. The main difference of this disease from other dermatitis-at the opening of the papules is separated film, and the place of open wound exude drops of blood like dew.
The treatment of psoriasis
Psoriasis ─ chronic disease that is difficult to treat. Often relapse (even after long-term remission). The main goal of treatment ─ the disappearance of skin rashes. In the process of therapy to each patients needs an individual approach, which takes into account the laws of development of the disease, concomitant disease, patterns of recurrence.
The main methods of treatment of psoriasis:
- of ointment, a lanolin based;
- tar (juniper, pine);
- drugs oil (naphthalene);
- ointments containing mustard gas;
- hormonal ointments ─ appointed at an advanced stage.
- vitamin complexes;
- neuroleptics, tranquilizers;
- anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial preparations;
- stimulants of metabolism, biostimulants;
- immuno-pharmacological means.
- laser therapy;
- selective phototherapy;
- PUVA therapy;
- ultrasound therapy;
- magnetic therapy;
- cryogenic therapy.
To choose an effective method of treatment, the doctor take into account the condition of the patient, stage of the disease, localization of lesions and other factors.
The state of a person who suffers from psoriasis, a positive influence of proper nutrition. The diet should be simple, rich in vitamins and varied. Desirable diet and the practice of fasting days (kefir, meat, Apple, vegetables).
Excluded from the diet need a sharp, sweet, fried, smoked dishes. Also you can not eat pickled products, mushrooms, ice cream, coffee, sodas.
Psoriasis is not transmitted by contact. However, the causes of its emergence and development are so diverse that at risk could theoretically be anyone. Therefore, it is important to take care of the health, to protect the skin from trauma, burns, dehydration, strengthen the immune system. You should also eat right, not abusing alcohol, medical drugs and avoid stressful situations.