Psoriasis is a noncommunicable disease that affects the skin and its appendages: hair, nail plate. External manifestations are rash and peeling of the skin, hence the second name of the disease – psoriasis. It is characterized by the alternation of periods of exacerbation with periods of relative stability or remission. Since the onset of the disease is not caused by microorganisms, it is not contagious in nature and is not contagious. Medical statistics says that this disease affects about 3-4% of the population. Psoriasis can appear in people of any age, but "prefers" young: more than 70% of patients, it is found in the age of 18-23 years.
Why do I get psoriasis?
Psoriasis is an abnormal reaction of organism to external stimuli, which in some parts of the body, there is a rapid withering away of the top layer of the skin. The normal duration of the cycle of division and subsequent maturation of the cells is about 21-28 days, in the case of psoriasis, the period is reduced to 3-5 days. Today the majority of experts are inclined to consider psoriasis is a multifactorial disease of genetic etiology.
There are several theories about the origin of the disease. The first is that there are two varieties of lichen:
- the first is a consequence of the poor performance of the immune system that affects the skin and is hereditary, appearing from a young age;
- the second makes itself felt after the age of 40, affects the joints, nails, is not genetically determined and is not related to a malfunction of the immune defense.
Proponents of the theory argue that the only factor contributing to the development of psoriasis are immune system disorders that are provoked by a variety of factors:
- infectious diseases;
- a poor diet;
- cold climatic conditions;
- the abuse of alcohol.
According to this theory psoriasis is a systemic disease and can affect internal organs, joints and other tissues. With the defeat of the joints, so-called developing psoriatic arthritis, which suffer from the small joints of the hands, feet.
The emergence of diseases caused by the following factors:
- dry and thin skin;
- constant contact with irritating chemicals: household cleaning products, alcohol solutions, cosmetics;
- excessive hygiene, leading to the disruption of the natural protective barrier of the skin;
- Smoking, consumption of drugs or alcohol (contribute to the deterioration of blood supply and nutrition to the skin);
- taking certain medicines;
- fungal and bacterial infections;
- change climate in the region;
- eating spicy, acidic food, chocolate;
- allergic States;
Classification of the disease
Starts as psoriasis, how it manifests itself, what is its effect on the body – all these moments are determined by the specific pathology. Today there are several classifications of the disease. One of the most common divides the psoriasis in two varieties:
Nepustuleznaya (or simple) shape is characterized by a stable course of chronic pathology. This group is, and erythrodermic psoriasis, the main symptom of which is the defeat the greater part of the skin.
pustular variety includes:
- de annularis pustules;
- psoriasis Barbera;
- psoriasis background Tsimbusha;
- psoriasis of the palms and soles.
A separate category are:
- drug-induced form;
- psoriasis Napkina;
- "inverse psoriasis" (develops on the flexor surfaces).
Depending on the localization of the pathological process and characteristics of the first symptoms of psoriasis there are:
- psoriasis of the scalp;
- psoriasis of the skin;
- nails (onychodystrophy);
- psoriatic arthritis;
- psoriatic erythroderma.
Psoriasis — a systemic pathology that, in addition to distributing on the skin and nails can affect the spine, joints, tendons, immune, endocrine, nervous system. Often there is a loss of liver, kidney, thyroid gland.
First symptoms of psoriasis most often are:
- feeling chronic fatigue;
- depressed or depression.
Because of the complex impact of pathology on the body experts are more inclined to talk about psoriatic disease.
And yet the main clinic associated with damage to certain areas of the skin. One of the first manifestations is the appearance covered with psoriatic plaques (scales), rounded papules of bright red or pink. Their feature is the symmetrical location on the scalp, flexor surfaces, lower back, rarely on the genital mucosa. The size of the papules in the early stages is several millimeters and may continue up to 10 and more see the Feature of the rash becomes the basis for the separation of the disease into the following types:
- the point at which the elements smaller than a pinhead;
- teardrop – papules resemble a tear and correspond to the size of lenticulae cremore seed;
- coin – plaque with rounded edges reach 5 mm in diameter.
Sometimes the rash is curved in the form of rings or garlands, place cards with irregular edges.
The top layer of the papules are easily receding scaly plaques formed by the stratum corneum epidermis. First, scales are formed in the Central part of the plaque, gradually spreading to the edges. Light loose appearance due to the presence of dead cells filled with air gaps. Sometimes around elements formed a pink ring representing a zone of growth of the plaque and the spread of inflammation. The surrounding skin remains unchanged.
When you delete a RAID revealed a shiny surface is bright red in color, formed by the capillaries with a much attenuatum walls, the top covered with a very thin film. The capillaries are detected due to disruption of the normal structure of the top layer of the skin and its dramatic thinning. Changes in the structure of the skin occurs as a result of incomplete maturation of keratinocytes cells, leading to the inability of their normal differentiation.
Psoriasis of the scalp
The main symptom of psoriasis of the scalp the appearance is prominently elevated above the surrounding skin psoriatic plaques. They are abundantly covered resembling dandruff flakes. In doing so, the hair is not involved in the pathological process. Located under the hair area of the rash can spread over the smooth skin, the neck, behind the ears. This process due to the rapid division of keratinocytes in the affected area.
Symptoms of psoriasis of the palms and soles
This form of lichen provokes significant thickening of the Horny layer of the skin at these sites. The skin becomes rough and covered with cracks. The reason is the intensive cell division (their rate of reproduction up to 8 times higher than normal) and keep on the surface. At an early stage on the skin to form pustules with content that is first transparent, but gradually becomes white. Time with the formation of dark scars. In most cases, the disease manifests itself both on the feet and hands, but sometimes the plaques occur only in one area. When the distribution process on the back side of the hands we are talking about another form of psoriasis (not the Palmar-plantar).
Symptoms of psoriasis of the nails
What is nail psoriasis? For this type of disease is characterized by the variety of symptoms. Observed mainly two kinds of destruction of records:
- the type of a thimble in which the nail is covered with small holes resembling needle marks needle;
- the type of onychomycosis, the affected tissue reminiscent of nail fungus: nails change colour, noticeably thicken and flake off. Through the plate can be discerned surrounded by a reddish rim psoriatic papula, which resembles an oil slick.
The dependence of the symptoms of the stage of the disease
Symptoms of psoriasis vary depending on the particular season and stage. Many patients experienced "winter" variety of the disease, where periods of exacerbation there in the late fall or winter. In the warm season due to the intensity of the ultraviolet light occurs improving. "Summer" is quite rare. Within pathology there are three stages:
- Progressive, in which there are always new elements, is an active growth of the existing plaques, the presence around them pink zones, severe flaking, itching.
- Stationary – growth of papules stops, new lesions are not formed, the visible small folds on the top layer of the skin around the plaques.
- retrogressive – peeling absent, plaques begin to disappear, in the process of attenuation of disease in their place are areas of increased pigmentation.
Symptoms of psoriasis in children
Symptoms of psoriasis in children have some differences, especially in infants. The first signs are not typical. In skin folds appears demarcated area of redness, which is accompanied by maceration and gradual ita decorticavit of the stratum corneum (starting with the periphery). Outwardly, it resembles eczematid, diaper rash or Candida. Have younger children rashes continue to appear in not typical for psoriasis places (on the skin, genital mucosa, in the natural skin folds). Very often, the lesions first develop on the head, under the hair. Here are accumulated crusts on the background of moderate infiltration. Another common site of localization of the rash are skin is exposed to constant friction of the clothing or aggressive medicines.
Formed on the body of the papule gradually coalesce into plaques with irregular outlines. Their sizes can range from cremore lenticulae grain to children's hands. With teardrop-shaped papular elements have small dimensions. They appear suddenly, quickly covering the body, face, neck, scalp and extensoris indicis region of the hands and feet.
Psoriasis in children has a long and persistent course. The only exception is the keyhole type, which is characterized by more mild with long periods of remission. As in the case of adults, in the development of the disease distinguish three stages, or phases.
- At progressive, there are small pruritic papules with a rim of peripheral growth red. A feature of the symptomatology in infancy is the weak point of bleeding severity, a terminal of the film and the phenomenon stearin spot. Children grow and thicken the lymph nodes, sometimes they become painful (especially if exudative erythroderma and psoriasis).
- During the transition to stationary phase peripheral growth stops, there is a flattening of the infiltration in the center of the plaque and reduce flaking.
- The regressive stage is characterized by resorption of the lesions. Sometimes around them, you notice the characteristic depigmented ring. The places of the former rash lose pigment or, conversely, undergo hyperpigmentation. Lymph nodes become soft and reduced in size.
Diffuse lesions are observed on the palms and soles of the child. There are also cracks and the infiltration of the skin. In the case of common forms of dermatosis affects the nails: they formed a point indentation or longitudinal furrows. Severe psoriasis causes deformation of nails.
Pustular psoriasis is rare in children. It can occur in more adults. This disease is characterized by severe course with a noticeable deterioration and temperature rise.
arthropathic variety in children do not occur. In rare cases, young patients indicate the presence of joint pain.