What is psoriasis? Otherwise it is known as psoriasis. This is a complex infectious-inflammatory process localized mainly in the tissues of the dermis (hands, back, etc.). Is considered a kind of dermatosis. Is characterized by the formation of red elevations on the skin (papules), which over time merge together, forming larger lesions.
The incidence of the disease varies from 0.1 to 3%. The average incidence rate - 2.5% of the total population of the planet. Disease addition to food for thought process is the most prone individuals who live in conditions of civilized Nations. Accurately described the pathology nothing is known: etiology, pathogenesis, all these questions that there is no single answer. There is only speculation and theory. What you need to know about psoriasis?
Psoriasis - the causes of the formation
The above-stated pathology differs multifactoriality and polyethiologic. In practice, this means that the causes of psoriasis are multiple, the role played by various factors. The immediate reason is to reduce the life cycle of epidermal cells: normal structure of the dermis "live" for about a month and a half, while in scaly deprive, this period is reduced to several days.
As a result, the rate of cell death is higher than the intensity of their updates. The scales of epidermis are shed, forming large growths and causing irritation.
- Disorders of metabolism. According to the first theory, psoriasis (photos the symptoms and treatment in adults presented in this article) arises as a reaction to a slower metabolism. It is noted that many patients showed increased cholesterol concentrations, indicating changes in lipid metabolism. In this context, disease can be regarded as a "cholesteric diathesis". The imbalance observed in the structure of vitamin-mineral metabolism: the typical clinical picture includes the lack of vitamins, And the vitamin C content increased. Some may play a role hypothyroidism (insufficient thyroid function), lack of sex hormones;
- The genetic factor. Considered to be one of the reasons for the formation of the disease. Inherited not the psoriasis (photos the symptoms and treatment in adults are presented further), and a predisposition to it. Geneticists installed if the old uplink was a person suffering from scaly ringworm, the risk of Contracting the child grows to 25%. If both parents are ill, with a probability of 75% and a child gets sick. It is proved that up to 70% of patients with a dermatologist verified diagnosis have a family history burdened;
- The autoimmune theory. Today is considered the most authoritative and academic. The hypothesis States that at some point the immune system of the patient fails, the result of which the protective system takes healthy cells for dangerous "aliens." Initiated active development of leukocytes and other immune cells that destroy the structure of the dermis. The Foundation of pathology is the presence of a source of chronic infection: we can talk about diseases of the throat, nasopharynx, etc. With a current blood or lymph pathogenic flora is transported to the skin, forming new lesions. If you believe the theories that we are talking about a delayed immune response;
- The infectious hypothesis. Until recently was considered the most accurate and undeniable. Its essence lies in the idea of depriving as infectious contagious disease. The guilt of the "accused" and staphylococci, and streptococci, and spirochetes, as it turned out, with direct contact psoriasis is not transmitted from person to person that the evidence in favor of noninfectious origin.
All the presented theories have a grain of truth. This problem is considered as a complex, polietiologic disease. You can also talk about a number of precipitating factors. They are the triggers (cause manifestation or a relapse), it helps to cure psoriasis:
- Climate change;
- Psoriasis - frequent stress. It is assumed that the role in the development of pathology plays a hormonal imbalance: active cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine;
- The abuse of alcohol;
- Medication. Primarily anti-inflammatory, vitamins, cytostatics;
- Injury of the epidermis.
The causes of many diseases. To understand them can only the attending specialist.
To classify the disease can be due to four reasons: the form, the nature of the flow, stage, and localization.
- Pustular form;
- Non-vascular form.
Current patterns are:
- Generalized type (pustular psoriasis). Psoriasis is rare, not more than 1% of cases. Characterized by rapid, aggressive course. In a short period of time appear on the skin red spots that merge into a single focus. The most frequent location of the pathological process: in the groin, on arms, in the field of anatomical bends of the limbs;
- Exudative form. Developed as secondary lesions in patients with disorders of the thyroid gland, with diabetes. This form is characterized by the exudation of the liquid component of blood with the formation of the wound surface. When removing the layer of the skin exposing the affected area of the skin with the release of large amounts of fluid;
- Plaque-shaped type. The most common form of the disease. Found in 85% of cases. The "classic" form of psoriasis begins with the appearance on the dermis of one or more red papules covered with dead skin cells. In the future several months or years, individual sections are fused together. Localization: on the hands, bends of limbs, scalp, etc.;
- Atypical form. It occurs only rarely. Is characterized by atypical localization of papules;
- Teardrop. Got its name for the shape of the plaques.
- On the hands and feet;
- On the body;
- On the face;
- On the head;
- On the nails.
In isolation, these forms do not occur.
- The initial stage. The disease manifests with the formation of little "acne" spots or rounded, red or purple. Legs bluish. The surface of the papules covered with silvery scales peeled off, which are poorly connected to the dermis and can be easily pulled off with mechanical impact - all these psoriasis;
- Stage progression. The clinical picture is compounded. Formed fresh papules, over time all the red spots merge together, forming conglomerates. Skin in the affected areas is red, forms erythematous halos. Unlike plaques at an early stage, the progression of plaque do not have clear boundaries and smooth shape;
- Stationary phase. Advanced stage of scaly lichen. At this stage, the formation of new lesions ceased, the old papules fade and cease to increase in volume. Extensive growth stops.
Sometimes isolated and regressing stage, when platelets decrease in size.
Pathognomonic recurrent, cyclic course. Each new cycle is characterized by the four stages.
The clinical picture is typical. The symptoms of "classic" psoriasis include:
- The formation of papules is psoriasis. The diameter of the redness from 1 mm to 3 cm. In typical cases the process is localized on the hands, scalp, back;
- Horny thickening of the skin. The dermis in the affected areas gets tough, are formed similar to corn growths. In remission when the redness goes, Horny growths persist;
- A feeling of itching, burning the affected areas of the epidermis. Due to the infiltrative process involving receptors skin itching. There is a reflex desire to scratch psoriatic plaques;
- The development of cracks on the skin.
With the defeat of nails observed:
- Pitches ulceration of the nail plate;
- Change the color of the nails on the type of fungal;
- Disorders structure of the nail.
Psoriasis - a systemic disease during which is celebrated the total defeat of all body systems. In the advanced stages can be seen, and generalized manifestations of the disease:
- Hypo - or hyperthermia, due to immune reaction;
- Disorders of thyroid function (overweight, feeling heat, tides);
- Mental disorders (induced schizophreniform psychosis);
- Redness of the joints, pain in extremities (that is psoriatic arthritis).
We should stay on the psoriatic arthritis origin. This disease (like psoriasis) is an aggressive course with the following symptoms:
- Redness of the joints;
- The local temperature increase (caused by inflammation of the anatomical structure);
- Violation of the functional activity of the affected joint;
- The sensation of pressure, "tight glove," all of that psoriasis;
- Pain, aggravated at night and subsiding until noon.
Specific manifestations depend on the type and stage of the pathological process.
The severity of the disease
There are three main degree. Criteria for their separation are the severity of the current disease-causing process and the area of extensive development of the lesion.
- Easy psoriasis. Psoriatic Papules of the process unit or non-existent. There is a slight character skin itching, body temperature normal, generalized no symptoms. Formed isolated areas of hyperemia of the skin with clear, smooth contours. On the surface of the dermis are affected whitish skin flakes that resemble dandruff. The General area of lesions is less than 3% of the whole body;
- Moderate ringworm. The volume of extensive growth of psoriatic changes discovered and make up about 3-10% of the body surface. Plaques multiple, delimited from each other, conglomerates do not form. There is a slight hyperthermia with subfebrile values of the thermometer (around 37-37.5 degrees);
- Severe psoriasis is a psoriasis in a different form. The affected area of skin more than 10% of the body. The diameter of psoriatic plaques is several centimeters. Sections of the pathogenic process of multiple, merge into a single complex. Discovered redness, swelling of the dermis.
There is another method of determining the severity of the process according to the so-called. index PASI (PASI), the psoriasis:
This is a multi-factor scale, which takes into account all data in the system. It is considered the most accurate technique to determine the complexity of the flow.
The quality of life of patients
Ringworm of the specified type refers to a severe systemic pathologies. As with any complex disease, zoster significantly reduces the quality of life of patients, as indicated by the data of numerous surveys.
So, as noted by the patients themselves, they learn to live with the problem, however, have difficulties in a number of areas:
- In their professional activities. Psoriatic arthritis, constant itching, and other factors prevent normal physical work;
- In the domestic sphere. In particularly difficult cases, patients not even able to care for themselves;
- In the sphere of free time. Persons affected are unable to engage in certain types of sports, experience psychological discomfort due to the unaesthetic appearance of the skin.
We have to talk about the stigmatizing disease. Surrounding fear of its contagiousness, it greatly affects the self-esteem of the patient. In addition to physical discomfort and even mental notes. For obvious reasons, individuals deprived often fall into depression, seek social isolation.
How to cure psoriasis? Therapy must be comprehensive. First of all, we are talking about medical effects on the body. Is assigned to the following groups of drugs:
- DZ-vitamin preparations. Considered quite safe because they do not have serious side effects. Have a pronounced antiproliferative effect, reducing the division rate of skin cells. This includes: Minisan, Oksidevit, Aquadetrim;
- Retinoids. Dangerous drugs with serious side effects. However, they can be the answer to the question of how to cure psoriasis. Trade names: accutane, Acitretin, Soriathan;
- Suppressors of immunity. Neural, Methotrexate, Cyclosporine;
- Finally, the answer to the question "how to treat psoriasis developed" may lie in the use of corticosteroids: Prednisone, Dexamethasone, etc..
Also practiced methods of physiotherapy:
- UVF radiation;
Answers to the question how to heal psoriasis there are many. To determine the tactics of therapy can be a doctor. There are many nuances, it all depends on the severity of the disease and its localization.